Revue de Qumrân 106, tome 27 (2015)

  • Tervanotko, Hanna, "Members of Levite Family and Ideal marriages in Aramaic Levi Document, Visions of Amram, and Jubilee," RdQ 27 (2015), 155-176.
    AbstractThe marriage practices of the members of the family of Levi in general and their preference to marry within their family in particular have received attention in the recent scholarship. This study analyzes how Jubilees, the Ara-maic Levi Document and the visions of Amram portray the ideal marriages of the members of the Levite family. After carefully reading those passages of these texts, that highlight women and ideal partners, I argue that these texts are interested exclusively with women of Levite origin. The primary function of women in these texts is to provide the right pedigree for the members of the Levite family. In addition to the previously argued views, I propose that the members of the Levite family, who are treated as early prototypes for the high priest, are subject to the marriage rule of the high priest who had to marry a daughter of another priest. This rule triumphed over all other regulations, including the Pentateuchal marriage laws. By making the Levites take spouses from their own family, the authors turn the Levites into exemplary figures who followed the priestly rulings before they were given at Sinai. Finally, it will be pointed out that the Aramaic Levi Document and the visions of Amram do not reduce Levite women to a reproductive role but develop the concept of ideal spouses further than Jubilees does.
  • Karner, Gerhard, "Ben Sira ms A fol. I recto and fol. VI verso (t-S 12.863) revisited," RdQ 27 (2015), 177-203.
    AbstractThis article offers some remarks on the reading of the offset letters preserved on the first lines of Ms A folio I recto and folio VI verso. As Eric D. Reymond has recently observed, the traces on Ms A I recto, lines 1–4 indeed reflect parts of a Hebrew version that corresponds to a portion of text hitherto only known from the Syriac translation. Discussing the reading of the offset traces proposed by Reymond, the article offers an analysis of its own and demonstrates how image manipulation programs can help to both reconstruct missing text as well as check the results. Among other observations the article proposes a reconstruction of the barely legible offset traces on Ms A VI verso, which seems to suggest that the now lost Hebrew text of Sir 16:26b–29 might correspond to an expanded textual form as preserved in the Syriac version of Codex Ambrosianus (7aI).
  • Heger, Paul, "The Husband’s or Father’s Authority to Annul His Wife’s or Daughter’s Vows Introduction," RdQ 27 (2015), 205-223.
    Abstracthe rules about the husband’s authority to annul his wife’s vows and oaths in CD XVI 6-12 and 4Q416 (4QInstrb) 2iv 6-11seem at first sight to be conflicting. Whereas 4Q416 decrees the husband’s unlimited author-ity, the CD seems to limit it. Cecilia Wassen indeed confirms this diver-gence, alleging that the CD restricts the husband’s annulment authority exclusively to commitments which conflict with scriptural law. After an extensive analysis of the scriptural sources, and their rabbinic interpreta-tion, the study effects a meticulous scrutiny of the CD text, and postu-lates the notion that the CD does not restrict the husband’s authority, but advices him how to proceed regarding a commitment by his wife, which seems to conflict with a particular Qumran regulation. Hence, the two sources are not contradictory.
  • Scacewater, Todd, "The Literary unity of 1Qm and its three-Stage War," RdQ 27 (2015), 225-248.
    AbstractThis article provides an account of the war in 1QM that attempts to resolve supposed contradictions and interpretive difficulties, which have occa-sioned multiple redactional theories. The thesis is that the war includes three-stages. Although a three-stage war has been suggested before, the present essay presents a different three-stage war that does more justice to the lan-guage of the war’s outline in 1QM, to the Old Testament passages used to present the various stages of the war, and to the competency of the author and possible redactor(s). This thesis does not rule out redactional activity, but sug-gests that the extant copy of 1QM presents a unified account of the war.
  • Lee, Lydia, "Fiery Sheol in the Dead Sea Scrolls," RdQ 27 (2015), 249-270.
    AbstractThis paper highlights that a fiery underworld is attested in several Qum-ran texts, expressed through the uniquely Hebraic term “Sheol” (שׁאול). This topic has often gone unnoticed in studies of the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS). A scholarly consensus has been reached about the existence of a dualistic post-mortem judgment in several DSS, such that people await either reward or punishment after death. As noted by Klawans, however, primary emphasis has been placed on the kinds of reward, whether in the form of physical resurrection or immortality of the soul, envisioned in these texts. There is a general neglect of the DSS’s perceptions of the post-mortem punishment. The situation is most recently remedied by Nebe’s article entitled “Scheol in den Schriften vom Toten Meer.” Even though Nebe does summarily notice that one scroll (4Q491 frg. 10 II 17) depicts the fiery judgment of God reaching down to Sheol, he does not observe that several other scrolls from Qumran (1QM XIV 16-18; 4Q491 frgs. 8-10 I 13b-15; 1QHa IV 25-26a; 4Q184 frg. 1 6-11a) begin to associate Sheol with fire even more closely. This paper thus fills the lacuna by elucidating the fiery nature of post-mortem punishments in the Sheol of the DSS.
  • Høgenhaven, Jesper, "the Language of the Copper Scroll: A renewed examination," RdQ 27 (2015), 271-301.
    AbstractIn the editio princeps (DJD III, 1962) of the Copper Scroll (3Q15) J. T. Milik defines its Hebrew as a dialect of Mishnaic Hebrew (MH), a description that has been both contested and defended by subsequent scholars. This article surveys main lines of the discussion, and attempts a fresh descrip-tion of important features of the Hebrew of 3Q15, on the basis of the improved text edition by Émile Puech now available (2006). A comprehensive analysis of the language in 3Q15 confirms, and provides additional evidence for the findings of Milik and other scholars. Features shared by 3Q15 and MH include: Patterns of noun formation, the consistent use of the plural ending ין the exclusive use of the relative pronoun ש, the frequent employment of the possessive pronoun של, the use of adjectives of world direction (rather than construct chains). The most striking affinity between 3Q15 and MH is in the vocabulary. As would be expected, 3Q15 has a great number of lexemes which are common to all relevant types of Hebrew (Biblical Hebrew (BH), Qumran Hebrew (QH), and MH). However, of some 89 lexemes in 3Q15, which occur only in some of these “types” of Hebrew, 33 are shared exclusively by 3Q15 and MH texts. 19 of these have distinct synonyms in BH, and 13 have coun-terparts in both BH and QH. 3Q15, then, has more points of contact with MH than with any other relevant type of ancient Hebrew.
  • Allen, Garrick V., "The reuse of Scripture in 4Qcommentary Genesis C (4Q254) and ‘messianic Interpretion’ in the Dead Sea Scrolls," RdQ 27 (2015), 303-270.
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